Common Conditions addressed at the CCT

ADHD and ASD are neurodevelopment disorders that are first observed in childhood, and can be very disruptive for the individual, and their families. Both respond well to cognitive-behavioural therapy alone or in combination with medication (although only those with ADHD tend to respond well to medication).

There are 3 types of ADHD:

ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation

  • Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes
  • Has difficulty sustaining attention
  • Does not appear to listen
  • Struggles to follow through with instructions
  • Has difficulty with organization
  • Avoids or dislikes tasks requiring sustained mental effort
  • Loses things
  • Is easily distracted
  • Is forgetful in daily activities

ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive presentation

  • Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in chair
  • Has difficulty remaining seated
  • Runs about or climbs excessively in children; extreme restlessness in adults
  • Difficulty engaging in activities quietly
  • Acts as if driven by a motor; adults will often feel inside as if they are driven by a motor
  • Talks excessively
  • Blurts out answers before questions have been completed
  • Difficulty waiting or taking turns
  • Interrupts or intrudes upon others

ADHD combined presentation

  • The individual meets the criteria for both inattention and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD presentations.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

To be diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, children must:
  • have difficulties and/or differences from what’s typical in the areas of social communication, and restricted, repetitive, and sensory behaviour or interests, and
  • have had characteristics from early childhood, even if these aren’t picked up until later in childhood.

Difficulties in social communication

Signs in this area include:
  • rarely using language to communicate with other people
  • not speaking at all
  • rarely responding when spoken to
  • not sharing interests or achievements with parents
  • rarely using or understanding gestures like pointing or waving
  • using only limited facial expressions to communicate
  • not showing an interest in friends or having difficulties making friends
  • rarely engaging in imaginative play.

Restricted, repetitive and sensory behaviour or interests

To be diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, children must have difficulties and/or differences from what’s typical in the area of restricted, repetitive and/or sensory behaviours or interests.

Signs in this area include:

  • lining up toys in a particular way over and over again
  • frequently flicking switches or spinning objects
  • speaking in a repetitive way
  • having very narrow or intense interests
    needing things to always happen in the same way
  • having trouble with changes to their schedule, or changing from one activity to another
  • showing signs of sensory sensitivities like becoming distressed by everyday sounds like hand dryers, not liking the feel of clothes labels, or licking or sniffing objects.
In Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for ADHD and ASD management, a variety of tools and strategies are employed to promote emotional regulation, behavioural management and cognitive restructuring. The goal is to assist these individuals in living happier and more fulfilling lives, rather than fall prey to others’ expectations of conforming to. a particular societal standard.